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Properties

Liquefied petroleum gas is used in all applications where clean energy is required.

Liquefied petroleum gas is the only fossil fuel that is completely free from fine particulate matter. This natural raw material is also efficient when used for heating or combustion, with really low values in comparison with fuel oil and natural gas.

What is liquefied petroleum gas?

Liquefied petroleum gases such as propane and butane are organic compounds and belong to the saturated hydrocarbons group (also called paraffins or alkanes). The general chemical formulae are: C3H8 for propane and C4H10 for butane.

The value of liquefied petroleum gas for heating and combustion

The net calorific value of propane is 12.87 kWh/kg and the gross calorific value is 13.98 kWh/kg. The net calorific value of butane is 12.69 kWh/kg and the gross calorific value is 13.74 kWh/kg.

Safety due to rate of combustion (propagation)

The rate of combustion is the combustion expansion speed that occurs in a mixture with air or oxygen. The speed of outflow of liquefied petroleum gas into the air is greater than its rate of combustion. This means that flashback into the tank or bottle is not possible, regardless of how full it is.

Density

The density of liquids and gases depends on the pressure and temperature. In the case of liquefied petroleum gas, a distinction is made between the liquid phase and the gas phase:

Normal state liquid phase/gas phase
Propane 0.5305 kg/l 2.037 kg/m³
Butane 0.5968 kg/l 2.66 kg/m³

These density values show that in their gas state, propane and butane are more than twice as heavy as air, which has a density of 1kg/m³. Due to the higher density, liquefied petroleum gas outflow sinks to the floor, collecting at the lowest point. For this reason, liquefied petroleum gas in bottles and pressure tanks is not allowed to be stored in rooms below ground level for safety reasons.